Oh ok, so my plan of attack
...is perfect! Carry on my wayward son.
What if the bridge was set above the fulcrum point
It would just slip off the post.
What is the proper name for the intonation blocks
Bridge saddles. Or just saddles.
The store I bought my guitar from warned me against using my tremelo bar but I want to give it a try, what are the repercussions of using one?
It's a valuable skill which I don't think you should avoid. It's an integral part of modern playing styles - especially rock. The downside is you'll probably go out of tune more often. If you are aggressive with it, bending notes up far, you run the risk of breaking strings more often.
You'll probably go through a phase of doing motorcycle impressions, but that's more of a downside for the lucky family members who have to hear said motorcycle noises than for you - great fun!
What would be my next step in maintaining/tweaking my guitar?
Well, for a beginner, the store should have set it up so the bridge is not floating (I'm guessing they didn't). This puts the trem flat against the body and lets you only lower the pitch with the trem, not raise it. The guitar is easier to tune tuning is more stable and changing string brands and gauges is easier - ideal for a beginner. I wouldn't recommend you tackle that just yet - rather take it back to the store and ask them to do it. They need to lower the posts and raise the saddles to compensate, then tighten the springs to pull the trem harder against the body.